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Children with community-acquired pneumonia often receive diagnostic testing and antibiotic therapy despite publication of guidelines against their routine use in 2011

Diagnostic Testing, Antibiotics Overused in Pediatric CAP

Chest radiography ordered in 43 percent, antibiotics prescribed in 73.9 percent of community-acquired pneumonia visits
Antibiotic prophylaxis before dental procedures is unnecessary more than 80 percent of the time

Antibiotic Prophylaxis Before Dental Work Often Unnecessary

Dentists write 10 percent of all prescriptions for antibiotics in the United States
A single dose of a prophylactic antibiotic is beneficial after operative vaginal birth and reduces the risk for confirmed or suspected maternal infection

Prophylactic Antibiotic Cuts Infection Risk After Operative Vaginal Birth

Benefits seen following operative vaginal birth at 36 weeks of gestation or later
A single dose of gentamicin is an appropriate second-line therapy for gonorrhea resistant to a single dose of ceftriaxone

Gentamicin Appropriate Second-Line Therapy to Ceftriaxone for Gonorrhea

Two weeks after treatment, infection cleared for 98, 91 percent treated with ceftriaxone versus gentamicin
Three months of azithromycin did not significantly reduce treatment failure among patients hospitalized for an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Impact of Azithromycin Studied in Acute Exacerbation of COPD

Azithromycin leads to significant drops in treatment intensification and step-up in hospital care
For women in middle and late adulthood

Longer Duration of Antibiotic Use Tied to Risk for CVD in Women

Risk for cardiovascular disease increased for women in middle, late adulthood with longer antibiotic use
For children with acute respiratory infections

Telemedicine Leads to More Antibiotic Rx for Pediatric Respiratory Infection

More antibiotics prescribed with less guideline-concordant antibiotic management versus other settings
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposal to allow use of the antibiotic streptomycin to treat citrus disease should be withdrawn because it poses a risk to human health and the environment

EPA Proposal Will Allow Antibiotic Spraying of Citrus Crops

Consumer Reports warns of '26-fold increase in the use of streptomycin in plant agriculture'
Recommendations have been developed for use of polymyxins

Guidelines Developed for Polymyxin Antibiotic Use

Polymyxin B recommended for routine use in invasive infections; colistin preferred for lower UTI
Delaying or withholding antibiotics for older patients with a urinary tract infection is associated with an increase in bloodstream infection and all-cause mortality

Antibiotic Delay Leads to Increased Risks in Seniors With UTI

No antibiotics, deferred antibiotics tied to increase in bloodstream infection, all-cause mortality