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From 2012 to 2017

Some Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Infections Down in U.S.

MRSA, vancomycin-resistant enterococcal, MDR P. aeruginosa infection rates fell from 2012 to 2017
Prenatal antibiotic exposure overall has no significant association with later overweight or obesity in children

2nd Trimester Antibiotic Exposure May Up Risk for Offspring Obesity

Exposure in infancy might also increase the risk for childhood overweight or obesity
Antibiotic prescriptions in the first year of life are associated with an increased risk for type 1 diabetes in childhood

Antibiotics in First Year of Life May Up Risk for T1DM by Age 10

Antibiotic prescriptions for ear, respiratory tract infections major driver for increased risk
For children with suspected community-acquired pneumonia who are discharged from the emergency department

Antibiotics May Not Help Children With Suspected Pneumonia

Outcomes do not differ for those with suspected CAP discharged from the ED with or without antibiotic Rx
Repeated courses of antibiotics may be associated with adverse outcomes

Repeated Courses of Antibiotics Linked to Hospital Admissions

For patients with frequent prior antibiotic use, rates of admission remained elevated over six months
For adults with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Antibiotics, Corticosteroids Beneficial in COPD Exacerbations

Independent of exacerbation severity, antibiotics tied to increased resolution, less treatment failure
Prescribing macrolide antibiotics during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for major fetal malformation

Major Malformations Up With Macrolide Prescribing in Pregnancy

Macrolide prescribing during any trimester linked to increased risk for genital malformations
For patients being treated for uncomplicated acute appendicitis

QOL Similar After Surgery, Antibiotics for Uncomplicated Appendicitis

No difference seen in satisfaction for patients after successful antibiotic treatment versus appendectomy
One in three children are prescribed antibiotics at children's hospitals

One-Quarter of Antibiotic Prescriptions at Children’s Hospitals Suboptimal

21 percent of these orders are suboptimal by antimicrobial stewardship program standards
Large proportions of antibiotic prescriptions for Medicaid patients are filled without evidence of infection-related diagnoses or clinician visits

Many Antibiotic Rx Filled Without Infection-Related Diagnosis

More than one-quarter of antibiotic fills for Medicaid patients not associated with a clinician visit